Kraft

Names: 
Grjaznucha
Kraft
Verchnjaja Grjaznucha
Verkhnaya Grasnukha
Verkhnyaya Gryaznukha
Werchnaja Gräsnucha
Ust-Grayaznikha
Grayaznukha
Верхняя Грязнуха
Грязнуха
Крафт
Усть-Грязнуха
Daughter Colonies: 
History: 

Kraft was founded on 18 August 1767 as a Lutheran colony by the Government.       

In 1876, immigration began to North America. These families settled in Kansas. Between 1879-1880, about 100 families moved to the Kuban region and settled in Orlovskaya and Michaelovskaya. In 1881, about 20 families returned because of the poor harvests.

Today, what remains of the former colony of Kraft is known as Ust-Grayaznukha.

Church: 

The congregation in Kraft was part of the Stephan parish which had been established in 1771. A new church building was completed in 1865.

Pastors & Priests: 

The congregation in Kraft was served by the following pastors:

  • 1771-1778 Johann Kaspar Brauns
  • 1778-1778 Laurentius Ahlbaum
  • 1779-1782 Klaus Peter Lundberg
  • 1782-1788 Jakob Alexander Topelius
  • 1798-1811 Karl Adolf Günther
Population: 
Year
Households
Population
Total
Male
Female
1767
 
211
 
 
1769
62
202
108
94
1773
63
246
132
114
1788
58
362
180
182
1798
68
432
223
209
1816
103
670
334
336
1834
142
1,336
663
673
1850
202
2,036
1,018
1,018
1857
215
2,514
1,280
1,234
1859
173
2,531
1,275
1,256
1886
348
2,779
1,399
1,380
1891
291
3,967
2,017
1,950
1894
300
4,593
2,347
2,246
1897
 
2,664*
1,345
1,319
1904
 
6,387
 
 
1911
 
6,101
 
 
1912
 
6,572
 
 
1920
492**
3,391
 
 
1922
 
2,518
 
 
1926
492
2,821
1,370
1,451
1931
 
3,454***
 
 

*Of whom 2,650 were German.
**Of which 491 households were German.
**Of whom 3,412 were German.

Sources: 

- Beratz, Gottieb. The German colonies on the Lower Volga, their origin and early development: a memorial for the 150th anniversary of the arrival of the first German settlers on the Volga, 29 June 1764. Translated by Adam Giesinger (Lincoln, NE: American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 1991): 350.
- Diesendorf, V.F. Die Deutschen Russlands : Siedlungen und Siedlungsgebiete : Lexicon. Moscow, 2006.
- Pallas, P.S. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. Theil 3,2, Reise aus Sibirien zurueck an die Wolga im 1773sten Jahr (St. Petersburg: Kaiserl. Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776): 623.
- Pleve, Igor R. The German Colonies on the Volga: The Second Half of the Eighteenth Century, translated by Richard Rye (Lincoln, NE: American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 2001): 318.
- Preliminary Results of the Soviet Census of 1926 on the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Pokrovsk, 1927): 28-83.
- Schnurr, Joseph, Die Kirchen und das Religiöse Leben der Russlanddeutschen - Evangelischer Teil (Stuttgart: Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Russland, 1972): 193.
- "Settlements in the 1897 Census." Journal of the American Historical Society of Germans from Russia (Winter, 1990): 18.

Map showing Kraft (1935).

German houses in Kraft.

Latitude: 50.551022
Longitude: 8.780011
Latitude: 50.576111
Longitude: 8.930278
Latitude: 50.609047
Longitude: 9.477503
Latitude: 49.872825
Longitude: 8.651193
Latitude: 49.800000
Longitude: 9.000000
Latitude: 50.578077
Longitude: 9.262815
Latitude: 49.901055
Longitude: 8.844496

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